Grand Manan Hiking Trail

Cliffs at Southwest Head, Grand Manan Island.
Cliffs at Southwest Head, Grand Manan Island.

Grand Manan, population ~2500 (2006) is the largest island in the Bay of Fundy. At about 15km off the coast from where Canada meets the US (New Brunswick / Maine), it’s situated at the mouth of the bay.

Although there is apparently some hiking on smaller islands in the area, most of the marked and maintained trails are on the larger island. There are a network of short trails, primarily on the west side, but the paths can be combined to form “The Red Trail”. From Swallowtail, just around the northern tip of the island, to Southwest Head on the southern end, The Red Trail is about 44km in length.

Avalon X-Country Route


Railbed portion of the proposed route, near the end of Section 3, Conception Bay

The Avalon X-Country Route!… the AXCR
(It must be exciting – it has an X and an exclamation mark right in the name!)

The AXCR is a loosely defined route from Cape Race to Topsail Beach via the Avalon Wilderness Reserve on the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland. The route is summarised in GPS Tracks and Waypoints.

What you will not find on the AXCR: Cutting. Marking. Maintenance. A Path.

What you will find on the AXCR: A frustrating variety of hiking experiences.

Section 1: Cape to Trepassey

As specified in the table, this section is all road. Leaving the lighthouse at Cape Race headed west, the hiker is on gravel road for about 20 km. Upon reaching the community of Portugal Cove South, the road is paved for the next 12 km to Trepassey.

At approximately the halfway point between Cape Race and Portugal Cove South, the UNESCO World Heritage Site at Mistaken Point Ecological Reserve is home to fossils of the oldest complex life forms found on earth. The Ediacara Biota was believed to be a sea bottom creature that lived some 550 million years ago. Although fossilized variants of this species have been found worldwide, the find at Mistaken Point is believed to be the oldest on record. Tours of the area are by guide only and can be arranged at no cost through the Edge of Avalon Interpretive Centre at Portugal Cove South.

In terms of amenities or resupply, there’s not much along this stretch. It’s a barren coastline – very much exposed to the North Atlantic – an area that is unwelcoming, particularly in windy conditions. There are a few small seasonal restaurants and hotels near the end of this 32 km section @ Trepassey.

Section 2: Avalon Wilderness Reserve (AWR) and Environs

This is rough, unmarked wilderness terrain – there often is no trail. GPS, Map and Compass are suggested. Good maps for this area would be (from south to north) NRC NTS Map Numbers 1 K/14, 1 N/3 and 1 N/6. These topographic maps are at 1:50,000 (~1.25 inch to 1 mile) scale.

Hikers wanting to cross the Avalon Wilderness Reserve are required to obtain an Entry Permit from the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Fortunately, this can be done via email and requests seem to be handled in a very prompt fashion. Include enough information in your initial request and you will likely have a quick resolution: Name, mailing address, telephone number, intention (ex. hiking / backpacking) and the dates which you will be in the area. There are a variety of restrictions for anyone entering the AWR – basically it gets down to the hiker behaving in a respectful way, as they should wherever they go. Be prepared to adhere to LNT Principles and check out the Rules and Regulations for wilderness reserves in Newfoundland and Labrador.

The Waypoints through the AWR start in the South and roughly follow a North / NNE direction. The route often utilizes woods roads (Northeast Trail, Horse Chops Road, Frank’s Pond Road, etc.) and other unnamed ATV trails when possible, with intermittent 10 to 20 km periods of bushwhacking and route finding to join these features when no clear path is available. This route was inspired by and closely follows Aaron O’Brien’s hike of the area in Fall of 2012 – read more about that trek @ The Independent. Since this is a protected area, no exact GPS Track will be provided – only Waypoints. Hikers can use this data to assist in navigating – just to point themselves in the correct general direction – and are encouraged to find their own route from one area to the next.

Near the northern end of this section (for approximately 1.2km, Waypoints 525 to 528) the route passes through the Hawke Hills Ecological Reserve, a protected barren alpine region. While no separate permit is required to walk through this area, activities are more restricted than the AWR – neither camping or fires are permitted and the hiker is asked to stay on the existing path. Practice Leave No Trace – leave nothing, take nothing. See the full regulations and other information on this area at the Gov of NL Dept. of Environment and Conservation Hawke Hills Ecological Reserve page.

Section 3: Conception Bay

Upon exiting the AWR and travelling along the Trans Canada Highway, the suggested route again enters the forest for a short period before reaching Holyrood and the railbed portion of the hike. Although the railbed initially closely follows the coast, options for resupply are plentiful – there are grocery stores at Holyrood and Long Pond, with several smaller vendors along the way.

What is this route’s relationship to the East Coast Trail (ECT)?

Combining the AXCR with the ECT produces a loop hike of about 530 kilometres

The Short Answer: There isn’t one.

The Long Answer: Those looking for a established, easy-to-follow, picturesque coastal path should first check out the East Coast Trail. Highly recommended.

After you’ve done that, if you want to:

A: Get back to where you started, but don’t want to sully your adventure by riding in a motor car…..


B: Up the ante and hike some barren wilderness (plus some tortuous road)….

Then it’s time to check out the AXCR! Think of it as the ECT’s illogical, illegitimate, wild eyed cousin.

You can find more info below on using this route to connect both ends of the East Coast Trail.

Please Note:
To be serious for just a moment… This suggested route is nothing more than a collection of GPS files – there is no conventional “hiking trail” within this area.

Additional Connector Segments (connecting the ECT via the AXCR).

There are unofficial ECT paths that could conceivably be utilized to connect the AXCR to the ECT in the north and south, allowing the hiker to effectively complete one big continuous loop of about 530 km on the Avalon Peninsula.

While this data is not available here, info on these Connector Segments has been shared via DropBox by Steve “Spongebob” Jackson for both the southern and northern ends (2 files, GPX waypoints, no signup required for download).

Southern Connector Segment: Cappahayden to Cape Race.
Length: 39 km
Rating: Difficult, with bushwacking and several river crossings.

Northern Connector Segment: Topsail to Portugal Cove.
Length: 15 km
Rating: Easy, marked path and asphalt.

National Trail in Québec, SNQ


The National Trail in Québec (referenced online as SNQ, or Sentier National au Québec) is a combination of trails stretching largely through the forest mountains north of the St. Lawrence River. The trail is developed by a number of smaller parks, municipalities and organizations along it’s length, but is overseen by Rando Québec, formerly the Québec Federation of Walking.

During the transition to Rando Québec, it has become a little harder to find detailed path info online. It is clear however that suggestions that the path is actively in development are accurate. When one examines the maps available through Rando Québec, it’s also clear that while the path does utilize some non single track woods trails, there seems to be a deliberate intention to stick to single track forest path whenever possible.

WIP, Seawall Trail

It’s unclear at this time if this trail will initially be linear (with access at both ends) or if one will have to access the trail from one end and hike back, as it’s a work in progress. Documents that the Seawall Trail Society have online suggest that some of the trail already exists at Red River (southern end) and Cape St. Lawrence (north).

East Coast Trail

ect-general-route-overviewThis trail follows the coastline for about 312 km on the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland. Along its length, the trail is comprised of shorter forest paths ranging from about 3 to a combined 30 km in length (2 to 19 miles). Generally, these paths link small coastal fishing communities.

At approximately the half way point, the trail also passes directly through the City of St. John’s, the capital of Newfoundland and the oldest city in North America (population of approximately 250,000 including metro area). Just south of St. John’s the trail passes the most easterly point in North American @ Cape Spear.

From the perspective of a thru hiker, the most advantageous aspect of a hike on this trail is unique – there are no fees, permits or paperwork of any kind to arrange a hike of this trail. To my knowledge, there is no other path in Eastern Canada of this length and with this level of development that can make such a claim.

The paths of the East Coast Trail are easy to follow – generally well marked, cut and hardened. It’s worth noting, however, that the trail follows the coastline so closely that it has many sudden, steep elevation changes and can even at times be dangerous – particularly when winds sweep off the Atlantic Ocean. The coast of this region consists largely of high, steep cliffs, making the views at each turn truly dramatic. With this terrain there are precious few flat, easy-to-hike sections.

Trailheads for each individual path are generally found at the outskirts of each community. Each individual trailhead sign generally lists the distance to the other end of that path. There is no indication of the length of the trail as a whole on these signs, as much of the usage to date is by day hikers and hikers doing partial sections. As such, there is also no indication at each end of the trail that the hiker has reached a terminus.

While hiking the Community Link routes, thru hikers will have a short walk on small, quiet community side streets of a few kilometers (usually just 2 or 3 km, with the longest being 8 km) before reaching the next trailhead. Currently, the ECT is 78% forest walking, and 22% community / road walking. These community road walks can at times be confusing – they are unmarked. To assist with this, there is unofficial, user-generated content available at in the form of a spreadsheet that links to Google Map Routes for each road walk. A full set of detailed maps for each individual path are available directly from the East Coast Trail Association.